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|Wikipedia:/en/Linguistics>

"Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modelling them.
The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Each of these areas roughly corresponds to phenomena found in human linguistic systems: sounds (and gesture, in the case of signed languages), minimal units (words, morphemes), phrases and sentences, and meaning and use.
Linguistics studies these phenomena in diverse ways and from various perspectives. Theoretical linguistics (including traditional descriptive linguistics) is concerned with building models of these systems, their parts (ontologies), and their combinatorics. Psycholinguistics builds theories of the processing and production of all these phenomena."

Language Families

|Wikipedia:/en/List of language families>


Summary of figure (ommitting many of the language groups with less than 1 million current speakers for brevity):

Family

name

Languages Current speakers Location
ALL AFRICA 1,845 514,952,937 All Africa
Niger–Congo languages 1,524 437,000,000 Africa
ALL

AFRO-ASIATIC/AUSTRONESIAN

1589 766,000,000 All

Afro-Asiatic/Austronesian

Afro-Asiatic languages 366 380,000,000 Africa, Asia, Europe
Austronesian

languages

1,223 386,000,000 Africa, Asia, Oceania
ALL ASIA 901 1,964,352,923 All Asia
Sino-Tibetan

languages

453 1,268,000,000 Asia
ALL

ASIA/EUROPE

522 3,401,260,258 All Asia/Europe
Indo-European

languages

437 3,200,000,000 Asia, Europe
ALL AUSTRALIA 334 29,386 All Australia
Pama–Nyungan

languages

300 23,539 Australia
ALL NEW

GUINEA

810 4,448,270 All New Guinea
Trans–New

Guinea

476 3,540,024 New Guinea
ALL NORTH

AMERICA

545 11,172,432 All North America
Mayan

languages

31 6,522,182 North America
Uto-Aztecan

languages

58 1,910,442 North America
Oto-Manguean

languages

176 1,678,214 North America
ALL SOUTH AMERICA 359 18,903,991 All South America
Quechuan languages 45 8,946,020 South America
Tupian

languages

66 5,026,502 South America
Aymaran

languages

3 2,808,740 South America
Arawakan

languages

54 699,709 South America

|Homers Homepage://Relations between Indoeuropean and Afroasiatic Languages>

"And furthermore one could assume the common origin of the gender system of Indoeuropean, Afroasiatic and Central Khoisan (as just mentioned above). Proto-Indoeuropean shows a gender system animate -m versus inanimate -d as just described (see the page referring to the Indoeuropean noun system). Afroasiatic shows a gender system male versus female (including things) with the female marker -t (for example Akkadian `sarr-um "king" versus `sarrat-um "queen". Nama (central Khoisan) shows a gender system male versus female versus common (= male or female), for example goma-p "bull" versus goma-s (dual -ra, plural -ti) "cow" versus goma-'i "cattle". If the Proto-Indoeuropean gender system animate versus inanimate goes back to a former gender system male versus female the markers seem to be identical in all three language families which would mean the common origin not only of the gender system as such but also of the elements used as markers for gender - that is the point!"

Afro-Asiatic

|Wikipedia:/en/Afroasiatic languages>

"By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties. Arabic has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.[7]

Other widely spoken Afroasiatic languages include: • Hausa (Chadic branch), the dominant language of northern Nigeria, Ghana, and southern Niger, spoken as a first language by over 27 million people and used as a lingua franca by another 20 million across West Africa and the Sahel[8] • Oromo (Cushitic branch), spoken in Ethiopia and Kenya by around 33 million people total • Amharic (Semitic branch), spoken in Ethiopia, with over 25 million native speakers in addition to millions of other Ethiopians speaking it as a second language • Somali (Cushitic branch), spoken by 15 million people in Somalia, Djibouti, eastern Ethiopia and northeastern Kenya • Hebrew (Semitic branch), spoken by around 9 million people in Israel and worldwide[9] • Tigrinya (Semitic branch), spoken by around 6.9 million people in Eritrea and Ethiopia • Kabyle (Berber branch), spoken by around 5 million people in Algeria. • Central Atlas Tamazight (Berber branch), spoken by around 2.49 million people in Morocco[10] • Neo-Aramaic languages (Semitic branch), spoken by about 550,000 people worldwide.[11] This is not just one language — It includes a number of subdivisions, with Assyrian Neo-Aramaic being the most spoken variety (232,300).[12]

In addition to languages spoken today, Afroasiatic includes several important ancient languages, such as Ancient Egyptian, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew and Old Aramaic. It is debated when and where the original homeland of the Afroasiatic family existed. Proposed locations include North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Eastern Sahara and the Levant."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Semitic_languages (aka Indo-Semitic)

"The Indo-Semitic hypothesis maintains that a genetic relationship exists between Indo-European and Semitic and that the Indo-European and the Semitic language families

descend from a prehistoric language ancestral to them both. The theory has never been widely accepted by contemporary linguists in modern times, but historically it has had a number of supporting advocates and

arguments, particularly in the 19th and 20th centuries."

Niger–Congo

Atlantic–Congo->Benue–Congo->Southern Bantoid->Bantu->Xhosa

Indo-European

(See also Category:Indo-European Languages)

https://indo-european.info/ie/Indo-Uralic_and_Afroasiatic

"Indo-European has been described as “a branch of Indo-Uralic which was

transformed under the influence of a Caucasian substratum”[Kortlandt 2002], which would imply an invasion of Indo-Uralic-speaking peoples to a territory of previous Caucasian hunter-gatherers. Such Caucasian influence has been supported recently by the finding of a genetic contribution (probably during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in the steppe, see below) of a pocket of Caucasus hunter-gatherers, who seem

to have weathered much of the last Ice Age in apparent isolation[Jones et al. 2015]."

Constructed Languages

|Wikipedia:/en/Constructed language>


"In terms of purpose, most constructed languages can broadly be divided into:
  • Engineered languages (engelangs /ˈɛnd͡ʒlæŋz/), further subdivided into logical languages (loglangs), philosophical languages and experimental languages; devised for the purpose of experimentation in logic, philosophy, or linguistics;
  • Auxiliary languages (auxlangs) devised for international communication (also IALs, for International Auxiliary Language);
  • Artistic languages (artlangs) devised to create aesthetic pleasure or humorous effect, just for fun; usually secret languages and mystical languages are classified as artlangs."

http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Portal:Main

Linguistic Oppression

Why is it that in certain parts of the world, you are expected to speak a certain language?

Is this a natural state of society, or an enforced suppression of cultural diversity?

Who speaks the dominant language? Is it an indigenous language to that land, or is it the language of a past invader? A colonial language?

Linguistic oppression is one of the foundations of racial suppression, and hence colonialism.

Referentials

One can observe the extent of animosity between two languages in the words used to describe the other language in the language of the aggressor.

Signs of equality tend to occur when the terms approximate the native terms (e.g. the English word for Português is "Portuguese"), whereas the other extremes can be completely reframed (e.g. "Japanese" for the native 日本語 (Nihongo)).


Info

|Wikipedia:/en/Anglicisation>


"Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.[1][2] It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves).

Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning. One example is the German word Felleisen (a backpack), a germanization of the French word valise (small suitcase).

This term does not cover the unmodified adoption of foreign words into English (kindergarten); the unmodified adoption of English words into foreign languages (internet, computer, web), or the voluntary or enforced adoption of the English language or of British or American customs and culture in other countries or ethnic groups, also known as social and economic anglicisation. (Examples being the action of the English crown in the Celtic regions of the United Kingdom, in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall; the policy on use of the English language as one of the causes contributing to the South African Wars (1879–1915);[3] or the adoption of English as a personal, preferred language in countries where that language is not native, but has become for historical reasons the language of government, commerce, and instruction.)"

Template:South African Wars (1879–1915)

"The various wars of this era are usually studied separately, as independent conflicts. They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the Basotho Gun War, the 9th Frontier War and others. However it is instructive also to see them as outbreaks in a far larger wave of change and conflict affecting the subcontinent - beginning with the "Confederation Wars" of the 1870s and 80s; escalating with the rise of Cecil Rhodes and the struggle for control of gold and diamond resources; and leading up to the Second Anglo-Boer War and the Union of South Africa in 1910."

Category:Linguistics

Linguistic Marxism Journal - Trigger Warnings - Pronouns - Echolalia - PFL vs IFL - AAVE - Xhosa - Samuel Johnson - Latin - Italian - Français (French) - Spanish - English - Ελληνικά (Greek) - Communication - Gender-Neutral Language - Privsplaining - Sign Language - Ambigrams - Coded Language - Deutsch (German) - Semitic Languages - Germanicity - Linguacoin - Aryanness - Alphabet - ASE -  - Η - Έψιλον (epsilon) - עֲנָקִים (Anakim) - Makaton -  - 日本語 (Nihongo) - Qu'est-ce que c'est - Category:اللغة العربیة (al-luḡa al-'arabiyya) - ગુજરાતી (gujarātī) - Phoenician - Ζήτα (Zeta) - Adjectives - 汉语 (Hànyǔ) - 普通话 (Pǔtōnghuà) - 中国 (Zhōngguó) - Category:中文 (Zhōng wén - Chinese) - Αντίθεση (antíthesi) - antithesis - Διαλεκτική (dialektikḗ) - dialectic - Constructs and Construction - Onomastics - Μολὼν λαβέ (Molon labe - come and get them) - Μι (Mu) - 𐤃έλτα (Delta) - Wahrscheinlichkeit (Probability) - Category:Ελληνικά (Greek) - Category:Cymraeg (kəmˈraːɨ̯ɡ - Welsh) - Category:Gàidhlig (kaːlɪk - Scottish Gaelic) - Category:日本語 (Nihongo - Japanese) - Category:Gaeilge (Irish) - Category:संस्कृत (Saṃskṛtá - Sanskrit) - Category:தமிழ் (Tamil) - Category:Русский язык (Russkiy yazyk - Russian) - Πι (Pi) - 自閉症 (Zì bì zhèng, Jiheishō - Autism) - Runasimi (Quechuan) - Category:Limba Română (Romanian) - Category:हिन्दी (Hindi) - Category:粤语 (Yuèyǔ - Cantonese) - Category:Svenska (Swedish) - Category:Germanic Languages - Category:Words - Hyperlexia - Category:Romani Čhib (Romani Language) - Category:Français (French) - Category:Romance Languages - Category:Italic Languages - Noam Chomsky - Category:Idiom - Category:Poetry - Category:Coding Languages - Category:Dravidian Languages - Category:ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada) - Category:Etymology - Category:বাংলা ভাষা (Bānlā Bhāṣā - Bengali) - Category:Xhosa - Category:Niger-Congo Languages - Category:Afroasiatic Languages - Category:Indo-European Languages - Category:ㄅㄆㄇㄈ (Bōpōmōfō, 注音符號) - Category:한국어 (Hangugeo - Korean) - Category:Language - Category:中国文字/中國文字 (Zhōngguó wénzì - Chinese Characters) - Category:Phonemes - Category:English - Category:Rhyme - Category:עִברִית (ivˈʁit - Hebrew) - Ethnolinguistics - Category:Ethnodynamics - Category:Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) - Language - Nouns - Alibi

https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-say-your-language-in-your-language

https://www.quora.com/Where-can-I-translate-one-word-expression-into-multiple-languages-simultaneously

Linguistic Reality

Reality is the underlying justification for Materialism and Dialectical Materialism was developed during a prolonged period of scientific and industrial revolution (in Germany, Austria and surrounding constitutional monarchic empires, primarily).

Neglected from the formalism is the set of assumptions upon which Materialism is based, primarily that we pre-suppose that the material world is describable in terms of events and measurements occuring in a 4-dimensional space-time with initial states and a system interaction function that defines how the state evolves in time with its environment - the Hamiltonian.

This was the birth of Newtonian Physics, evolving into Hamiltonian Physics, which later developed into Quantum Hamiltonians in the age of Einstein, Schrödinger and Heisenberg.

However, Quantum Hamiltonians have intrinsic uncertainty within them.

In the materialist viewpoint, Reality is a concrete set of facts about an external world which exists prior to our observations and has a state that could be written down on a piece of paper (provided a complex enough language to describe the state and a long enough piece of paper).

For a Quantum Hamiltonian these states can also be written down - but they only exist for a specific Hamiltonian at a specific moment in time and they represent the possible measurements you could observe about the quantum system.

However, it's completely dependent on the specific events of a real environment to know which of these Eigenstates the system is in. ...and to even say that the system is 'in' one state is an assumption.

All that measurement tells us is what we have measured.

Measuring a blip of extra current spike the reading on a current meter wired to a frozen microchip above an isolated charged atom (say, after you increased the local voltage) might indicate you've ionized the atom ... or it might just have been correlated but through a different cause (e.g. your cables have crosstalk).

Measurements do not equal facts.

If a study finds 2000 people who use drugs had a certain 35 genes more prominent in their DNA than 2000 people who didn't use drugs, then that might indicate that those 35 genes encourage drug use - or it might mean that social treatment of people whose characteristics resemble those 35 genes leads to many more of them to become drug users.

Correlation =/= Cause

Linguistics.

Quantum Linguistics

Perfect communication is impossible.

There is always a 'misinterpretation uncertainty'

We assume a shared lexicon, but no two people know all of the same words, or if they do they don't assign the exact same meanings to each one.

We assume our meaning is adequately conveyed, but we lack the awareness of other factors influencing the reception and interpretation of our co-communicators. [1 1]


As a process of information-processing it is impossible to establish lossless communication from a lossy channel in any finite number of communication steps - because each additional step requires the same complexity of error-correction operating on it as the levels above it were introduced to correct - an entropic minimum.[1 2]

  1. Ideally, if you have strong resonance with one another then we may maximise communication, but in order to achieve 100% communication would require constant feedback, which would itself require extra error-corrections and so on and so on (see 3LoTD).
  2. However, while some redundancy is needed in transmission of a message, the interpretation uncertainty can be reduced to zero between two entangled nodes - nodes who operate in super-correlation such that the state of one is aligned/anti-aligned with its entangled partner(s).



np = 2293 [= 16 [= Lp7

2293 = 2293 * 1 (prime)
PID = 5663 [= 20 [= Lp2
5663 = 809 * 7 (2-almost prime)
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